Fundamental Concepts and Definitions, Thermodynamic equilibrium
Thermodynamic definition and scope, Microscopic and Macroscopic approaches. Some practical applications of engineering thermodynamic Systems, Characteristics of system boundary and control surface, examples. Thermodynamic properties; definition and units, intensive, extensive properties, specific properties, pressure, specific volume, Thermodynamic state, state point, state diagram, path and process, quasi-static process, cyclic and non-cyclic; processes.
Definition, mechanical equilibrium; diathermic wall, thermal equilibrium, chemical equilibrium, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, Temperature; concepts, scales, international fixed points and measurement of temperature. Constant volume gas thermometer, constant pressure gas thermometer, mercury in glass thermometer.
Work and Heat, First Law of Thermodynamics
Mechanics, definition of work and its limitations. Thermodynamic definition of work;examples, sign convention. Displacement work; as a part of a system boundary, as a whole of a system boundary, expressions for displacement work in various processes through p-v diagrams. Shaft work; Electrical work. Other types of work. Heat; definition, units and sign convention. Problems.
Joules experiments, equivalence of heat and work. Statement of the First lawof thermodynamics, extension of the First law to non – cyclic processes, energy, energy as a property, modes of energy, Extension of the First law to control volume; steady flow energy equation(SFEE), important.
Second Law of Thermodynamics, Entropy
Limitations of first law of thermodynamics, Thermal reservoir, heatengine and heat pump: Schematic representation, efficiency and COP. Reversed heat engine, schematic representation, importance and superiority of a reversible heat engine and irreversible processes, internal and external reversibility. Kelvin – Planck statement of the Second law of Thermodynamics; PMM I and PMM II, Clausius statement of Second law of Thermodynamics, Equivalence of the two statements; Carnot cycle, Carnot principles. Problems.
Clausius inequality, Statement- proof, Entropy- definition, a property, change of entropy, entropy asa quantitative test for irreversibility, principle of increase in entropy, entropy as a coordinate.
Availability, Irreversibility and General Thermodynamic relations
Introduction, Availability (Exergy),Unavailable energy, Relation between increase in unavailable energy and increase in entropy. Maximum work, maximum useful work for a system and control volume, irreversibility.
P-T and P-V diagrams, triple point and critical points. Sub-cooled liquid, saturated liquid,mixture of saturated liquid and vapor, saturated vapor and superheated vapor states of pure substance with water as example. Enthalpy of change of phase (Latent heat). Dryness fraction (quality), T-S and H-S diagrams, representation of various processes on these diagrams. Steam tables and its use. Throttling calorimeter, separating and throttling calorimeter.
Ideal gases and Real gases
Ideal gas mixtures, Daltons law of partial pressures, Amagat’s law of additive volumes,evaluation of properties of perfect and ideal gases, Air- Water mixtures and related properties.
Introduction, Van-der Waal’s Equation of state, Van-der Waal’s constants in terms of criticalproperties, Beattie-Bridgeman equation, Law of corresponding states, compressibility factor; compressibility chart. Difference between Ideal and real gases.